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As the scale, speed, and implications of climate change come into focus, stakeholders in the electricity sector are finding it increasingly difficult to turn a blind eye. However, many have opted to attend to climate impacts in a piecemeal fashion, merely responding to particular extreme events- or types of extreme events, such as coastal storms or floods- and failing to consider the larger phenomenon. This is true of the bulk power system (BPS) in regions overseen by Independent System Operators and Regional Transmission Organizations (collectively, ISO-RTOs), none of which have comprehensively assessed their system\'s vulnerabilities to climate change. Lacking such assessments, ISO/RTOs cannot plan for the impacts of climate change, and thereby ensure the continued reliability and resilience of the BPS. This paper offers ISO/RTOs advice on how to plan for climate change and identifies resources and processes they could employ in the planning process. In addition to this, the authors offer six specific recommendations for all ISO/RTOs to follow in order to properly plan for climate change.
The legal environment for local government in Florida is beginning to change when it comes to sea-level rise. Innovations in institutional structure and governance strategies are underway in the State as well. This paper reviews three recent developments, which relate primarily to comprehensive planning in the State, and explores their implications for Florida’s local governments, among others. It begins with the State’s decision, in 2011 legislation, to give local governments a new, optional tool – referred to as “Adaptation Action Areas” – to address sea-level rise and related issues in local comprehensive plans. The paper then turns to a second piece of Florida legislation, this one enacted in 2015, which also identifies sea-level rise as a concern but this time mandates that local governments begin to address it and other causes of flood-related risks through their comprehensive planning process. Finally, the paper discusses a third initiative, launched in 2009 by four Southeast Florida counties – Miami-Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, and Monroe – to foster local government and regional coordination on sea-level rise and other climate change issues
In September 2014, New York enacted the Community Risk and Resiliency Act (CRRA), which requires in part that the New York Department of State and the Department of Environmental Conservation create model local laws relating to climate adaptation for use by local governments. In an effort to assist the State with drafting model local laws for adaptation; to encourage the State to incorporate a broad range of adaptation strategies, including retreat from areas of high flood risk; and to assist local governments with implementation of these programs. The Sabin Center for Climate Change Law has assembled existing and suggested local law provisions that reflect diverse approaches to adaptation to climate-enhance flood risk. This document is a collection of useful statutory options- one that takes note of local law provisions enacted by local governments in New York, as well as relevant state laws enacted in New York and other jurisdictions. This paper is organized into three sections: Permitting Review, Targeted Development Restrictions and Prudent Development, and Protection/Armoring.
U.S. cities and states are increasingly asking how they can play a more visible and active role in international climate change efforts. Cities and states have obvious incentives to take action to mitigate and adapt to climate change, but participation on an international level is also essential. This paper highlights a variety of ways in which U.S. cities and states can reflect their climate-related commitments on an international scale. Specifically, the author points to the Paris Agreement, the \'NAZCA\' Portal, Global Covenant of Mayors, U.S.- China Cities Initiative, Under2 Mou Initiative, and the California Summit for ways in which this goal can be met.
Congress established the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968 to reduce flood damages nationwide and ease the Federal government’s financial burden for providing disaster recovery. However, a proportionally small number of properties insured through the program are repeatedly flooded, repaired, and rebuilt. These properties, known as “severe repetitive loss” properties, contribute disproportionally to the rising debts of the NFIP program. This paper analyzes the National Flood Insurance Program and its substantial damage/improvement standards, and ends with policy recommendations aimed at improving climate resilience within communities. (Republished with permission from NRDC)
With the establishment of the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the international community has a historic opportunity to get climate finance right. Civil society groups have been clear about the kinds of adaptation and mitigation projects they don’t want the GCF to finance in developing countries. But the question of what the GCF should support has received considerably less attention. Fortunately, there are many positive examples to learn from. This report presents 22 climate- related projects, programs, and policies that organizations from the Global South and North have identified as successful. These examples are drawn from large and small developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, and are organized into four categories: adaptation, agro-ecology, adaptation/mitigation hybrids, and mitigation. The authors also draw out some of the common characteristics of these examples, with the hope that the GCF may incorporate these lessons into their financing strategies.