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The impetus for this guide and the work it reflects originated with the establishment of USDA's "Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food" (KYF2) Initiative. Launched in 2009, the mission of KYF2 is to strengthen the critical connection between farmers and consumers and support local and regional food systems. As such, it is closely aligned with the broader mission of USDA to support agriculture, rural development, and healthy nutrition. While there is no office, staff, or budget dedicated to KYF2, Deputy Secretary Kathleen Merrigan chairs a task force of USDA employees representing every agency within the Department in order to break down bureaucratic silos, develop commonsense solutions for communities and farmers, and foster new partnerships inside USDA and across the country.
We consider a food sector "innovation" to be a discrete program, project, or policy that relies on a new business model, or provides new products and services that either deliver or have the potential to deliver significant socioeconomic, health and nutrition, and environmental benefits, with an emphasis on economic development. These can include healthy foods produced entirely in or near a city as well as foods that are produced sustainably, using growing methods that protect and restore the natural environment. Regarding "local food," there are almost as many definitions as there are cities. No single definition, whether based on a geographic boundary or a specific distance, works in each and every city. Thus, the pursuit of a universal definition is of limited value for the purposes of this Roadmap. By comparison, the values of producing food in urban regions are diverse, including the creation of a more self-sufficient food system that is better insulated from global conditions, albeit more connected to local ones. Regardless of where food is grown, caught, or raised, cities can garner most of the economic benefits by expanding the number of local ventures that add value to food through processing, distribution, marketing, service, and sales.
Within cities, residents face stark disparities in their access to fresh, healthy produce, with low-income communities often the most affected by this limited access. Inequitable access to food perpetuates poor health outcomes among low-income populations and undermines efforts to improve public health and promote community. The increase in diet-related diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and some cancers have put us on a path to change modern history: many children born today will have a shorter life expectancy than their parents. In addition to nutritional and health impacts, the flow of food dollars out of the region represent a significant loss for local economies. Yet there are bright spots of innovation, where local policies promote and increase residents' access to healthy food. While there is no single solution to address this large and interconnected system of access to affordable, healthy food, there is a range policy strategies that can help develop local food capacities, enhance public health and improve urban economies.
Passing a local resolution is one way for communities to promote obesity prevention policies. Today more than two-thirds of adults in the United States are overweight or obese, and among children and adolescents, 16.3 percent are obese and 31.9 percent are obese or overweight. Obese children are likely to become obese adults: in fact, an obese older teenager has up to an 80 percent chance of becoming an obese adult. The health consequences of this trend are dire. If the obesity epidemic continues unchecked, experts warn that excess weight could reduce average life expectancy by five years or more over the next several decades.
A critical first step when considering a local tax is to review state law to determine what kinds of taxes are authorized for local governments in your state. Whereas states have broad authority to impose almost any type of tax, local governments can only impose taxes that have been specifically authorized by the state legislature or state constitution. Some states grant relatively broad authority for some local taxes (such as business license taxes, which are allowed in every municipality in California), whereas other states require specific state enabling legislation for each local tax. Therefore, it is essential that any local jurisdiction considering a tax consult with a local municipal tax expert to ascertain the available tax options. When crafting a tax law, there are numerous policy considerations that will affect the scope and breadth of the tax, and also the disposition of the proceeds. This document discusses these critical policy considerations, including the effect of adopting different provisions; legal, administrative, and political considerations; and other factors.
Millions of Michigan residents are in food insecure. Children, rural residents, people with disabilities, people of color, and seniors are most at risk. The report lists state policy and federal policy recommendations to solve the problems.
The state requires schools to use Direct certification to links school enrollment score with TAFDC and SNAP. This program helps protect students' health and provides an effective way to count low-income students. The report lists several problems of this system and possible solutions.
A child's health is a key predictor for his or her future success and well-being. Unfortunately, far too many children face barriers that prevent them from reaching their full potential because of where they live, learn and play. The inequitable distribution of social, economic and environmental resources across communities - often called the social determinants of health - create challenges for healthy living. Socioeconomic conditions (e.g., concentrated poverty), access to health care and transportation options, educational and employment opportunities, and aesthetic elements (e.g., green spaces and vibrant public spaces) result in differences in opportunities and exposure to health-promoting resources such as child care, high performing schools, affordable housing, access to healthy food and safe spaces for physical activity. The availability and quality of these neighborhood resources and services have a major impact on the ability of children and families to make choices that support healthy growth and development. When children and families have access to these resources and services, children have more opportunities to thrive. On the contrary, children growing up in communities that lack these often suffer poorer health outcomes than their peers. These differences in health are known as health disparities.
Bringing a grocery store into an underserved neighborhood not only makes fresh produce and other healthy food more accessible, it can provide livingwage jobs, raise the value of surrounding property, and anchor and attract additional businesses to the neighborhood. A wide range of public, private, and nonprofit organizations work to support projects - like grocery store development - that help build a healthy economy. This guide is designed to help advocates and public health agencies coordinate and leverage tools available through local government and other organizations to bring healthy food options into low-income communities. Economic development refers to a range of activities that help build and sustain a healthy economy.
Local governments can promote healthy eating and active living in their communities by supporting local farmers' markets. Local farmers' markets provide fresh produce to community residents, support small farmers, serve as community gathering places, and revitalize community centers and downtown areas.