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It can be diffiuclt to have a record and find work in Ohio, collateral sanctions block Ohioans from housing, civic rights and jobs. Increasing criminalization through insufficient economic prospects, making collateral sanctions unsafe and decress opportunities for legitimate work. The state should set legislature and programs to protect their rights and to expand job opportunities.
This policy brief presents recommendations from health pipeline professionals about how to build a diverse health care workforce and support young people of color pursuing these opportunities. Health career pipeline programs should be designed to increase opportunities for people from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, and disadvantaged back- grounds to pursue careers in health care. Health career pipeline programs offer young people and students the chance to engage in experiential learning by providing paid work-based internships and other learning opportunities in the health sector. Beyond these fundamental skills, pipeline programs need to provide targeted support to students of racial and ethnic minority backgrounds8 if they are to play a significant role in diversifying California’s health workforce. The health sector can serve as a vehicle for economic security in communities of color while simultaneously creating a diverse industry that reflects California’s diverse communities. More than one third of the projected growth in health care jobs will occur in the allied health professions, which already represent 60 percent of all health care providers. These professions include occupational therapists, dental hygienists, and x-ray technicians, and require relatively little formal training beyond a high school diploma. On average, these jobs pay about $35,000 per year and can provide opportunities for career advancement and educational reimbursement.
Small businesses are the lifeblood of the economy in the United States. Based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, the Office of Advocacy at the U.S. Small Business Administration documented that small businesses accounted for over 92% of the net new jobs creation between 1989 and 2003. The smallest among the small businesses (those employing fewer than 20 employees) accounted for 85% of the net new job creation over the same period. In essence, the vast majority of the new jobs created in the economy come from the very small businesses. Of the total 21.8 million jobs created between 1989 and 2003, small businesses under 20 employees created 18.6 million jobs, small businesses with between 20 and 500 employees created 1.5 million jobs, and large businesses and companies (with over 500 employees) created only 1.7 million jobs. Similarly, while small businesses created net new jobs in 12 of those 14 years, large businesses eliminated more jobs than they created in 5 of those 14 years.
In an attempt to promote model hiring policies in the private sector, several cities have also required employers that receive local government contracts to adopt the same hiring policies used by the city to remove barriers to employment for people with criminal records. For example, Boston, Cambridge and Worcester, Mass., as well as Hartford and New Haven, Conn., now extend their city "ban the box" policies and other local hiring reforms to their vendors.
America is a nation founded on the ideal that all of us are created equal. This ideal should hold true at home and at work. Paying people fairly for the work they do should not depend on gender or race. America is falling short of this ideal across all sectors of the economy.
An unprecedented number of cities and counties around the nation have adopted a local minimum wage that is higher than the federal wage floor. Today, more than 20 cities and counties have a higher local minimum wage; 11 were approved in 2014 alone. This wave of local minimum wage wins can substantially improve the lives of millions of workers, especially because workers are calling for higher minimum wages than ever before. For such wins to make a real difference to workers and their communities, however, strong enforcement provisions need to be part of any local minimum wage proposal. A robust local regime will strengthen workers' ability to assert their rights and ensure employer compliance with the new wage laws.
Local governments can advance energy-efficient technologies and practices in the marketplace by promoting energy efficiency in their own everyday operations, a practice commonly known as "Leading by Example" (LBE). Taking actions to improve the energy efficiency of government-owned and -leased facilities and fleets can accrue multiple benefits for both the government and the people it serves. Energy can account for as much as 10% of a typical local government's annual operating budget. As local governments attempt to act with heightened levels of austerity, implementing cost-effective energy efficiency processes and technologies is a proven solution to reduce unneeded spending.
An analysis of more than 4,200 economic development incentive awards in 14 states finds that large companies received dominant shares, ranging between 80 and 96 percent of their dollar values. The deals, worth more than $3.2 billion, were granted in recent years by programs that, on their faces, are equally accessible to small and large companies. Yet big businesses overall were awarded 90 percent of the dollars from the programs analyzed, indicating a profound bias against small businesses.
We estimate the effects of Wal-Mart stores on county-level retail employment and earnings, accounting for endogeneity of the location and timing of Wal-Mart openings that most likely biases the evidence against finding adverse effects of Wal-Mart stores. We address the endogeneity problem using a natural instrumental variables approach that arises from the geographic and time pattern of the opening of Wal-Mart stores, which slowly spread out from the first stores in Arkansas. The employment results indicate that aWal-Mart store opening reduces county-level retail employment by about 150 workers, implying that each Wal-Mart worker replaces approximately 1.4 retail workers. This represents a 2.7 percent reduction in average retail employment. The payroll results indicate that Wal-Mart store openings lead to declines in county-level retail earnings of about $1.4 million, or 1.5 percent. Of course, these effects occurred against a backdrop of rising retail employment, and only imply lower retail employment growth than would have occurred absent the effects of Wal-Mart.
Given the city's health and safety concerns this ordinance requires grovery retailers retain employees when the stores ownership changes hands.