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Within cities, residents face stark disparities in their access to fresh, healthy produce, with low-income communities often the most affected by this limited access. Inequitable access to food perpetuates poor health outcomes among low-income populations and undermines efforts to improve public health and promote community. The increase in diet-related diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and some cancers have put us on a path to change modern history: many children born today will have a shorter life expectancy than their parents. In addition to nutritional and health impacts, the flow of food dollars out of the region represent a significant loss for local economies. Yet there are bright spots of innovation, where local policies promote and increase residents' access to healthy food. While there is no single solution to address this large and interconnected system of access to affordable, healthy food, there is a range policy strategies that can help develop local food capacities, enhance public health and improve urban economies.
Passing a local resolution is one way for communities to promote obesity prevention policies. Today more than two-thirds of adults in the United States are overweight or obese, and among children and adolescents, 16.3 percent are obese and 31.9 percent are obese or overweight. Obese children are likely to become obese adults: in fact, an obese older teenager has up to an 80 percent chance of becoming an obese adult. The health consequences of this trend are dire. If the obesity epidemic continues unchecked, experts warn that excess weight could reduce average life expectancy by five years or more over the next several decades.
A critical first step when considering a local tax is to review state law to determine what kinds of taxes are authorized for local governments in your state. Whereas states have broad authority to impose almost any type of tax, local governments can only impose taxes that have been specifically authorized by the state legislature or state constitution. Some states grant relatively broad authority for some local taxes (such as business license taxes, which are allowed in every municipality in California), whereas other states require specific state enabling legislation for each local tax. Therefore, it is essential that any local jurisdiction considering a tax consult with a local municipal tax expert to ascertain the available tax options. When crafting a tax law, there are numerous policy considerations that will affect the scope and breadth of the tax, and also the disposition of the proceeds. This document discusses these critical policy considerations, including the effect of adopting different provisions; legal, administrative, and political considerations; and other factors.
We\'ve done a great job developing technology and labor saving machines, which unfortunately has produced a population that is disconnected from nature and sedentary. Our fondness of sitting is reflected in growing rates of obesity, diabetes, and chronic pain. One of the best things we can do to help people become more physically active is to give them public, open spaces where they can move their bodies. This document provides ideas for cities to reconsider existing public spaces and existing park furniture as exercise equipment. This is a low-cost, high-reward strategy to bring residents together in a public space and demonstrate a cultural commitment to holistic well-being. Cities can begin to think of parks as a way to provide access to the natural world, and a place where people can connect with their own physical bodies and each other.
Growing concern over childhood obesity has prompted a focus on underlying epidemics of physical inactivity and poor nutrition. Regarding the former, there is increasing understanding that behavior change promotion alone has not increased population physical activity levels and that an ecological approach is necessary. Therefore, the public health profession has moved beyond traditional behavior change campaigns toward a growing focus on altering policies and the built environment to create settings that support increases in routine, not just exercise or leisure time, physical activity among children. A survey of the literature suggests four broad factors that define settings where routine physical activity, especially active transportation, is more likely to occur: (1) a compact variety of land uses, with a mix of destinations in close proximity; (2) a comprehensive network of bicycle, pedestrian, and transit facilities; (3) inviting and functional site designs for pedestrians, cyclists, and transit users; (4) safety and access for users of all ages, incomes, abilities and disabilities. Although these principles are increasingly accepted as beneficial, not just to health but to a community's economic, environmental, and social well-being, many contemporary ordinances and development practices undermine these outcomes. Therefore, five specific policy and intervention approaches are recommended to guide communities to these outcomes: 1. zoning and development policies to protect open space, contain sprawl, and focus investment toward thriving, mixed downtowns and village centers; 2. Complete Streets policies, which require roadways that are safe and functional for pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users, as well as motor vehicles; 3. a transportation- (not just recreation-) oriented trail network; 4. creation of bicycle- and transit-friendly infrastructure and incentive policies; 5. development of policy-based Safe Routes to School interventions. This proposed intervention framework requires evaluation both of effectiveness in increasing childhood physical activity and of the most promising means of getting policies implemented.
After increasing steadily for decades, the national childhood obesity rate has leveled off. This policy brief examines reports from across the country to learn more about where progress is being made to address childhood obesity.
Over the last two decades childhood obesity has risen at an alarming rate in the United States. In 1999, 13 percent of children ages six to 11 and 14 percent of adolescents ages 12 to 19 were overweight. This prevalence has nearly tripled. Now, the number of overweight children in the nation exceeds 12 million. Evidence shows that children who enter adulthood obese are unlikely to shed the burden. And they also have a higher risk of premature death and disability in adulthood. Sedentary behavior is partly to blame. Forty-three percent of adolescents watch more than two hours of television each day, according to a federal report. But excessive screen time - whether it's the TV or computer - is only one obstacle that limits children's ability to obtain the one hour of daily exercise recommended by the U.S. Surgeon General. The built environment surrounding a child's neighborhood and school can also help or hinder physical activity. Research shows that children who live closer to parks and recreational facilities are more active than those who live further away. And active living, along with eating nutritious foods, plays a key role in maintaining a healthy weight.
A child's health is a key predictor for his or her future success and well-being. Unfortunately, far too many children face barriers that prevent them from reaching their full potential because of where they live, learn and play. The inequitable distribution of social, economic and environmental resources across communities - often called the social determinants of health - create challenges for healthy living. Socioeconomic conditions (e.g., concentrated poverty), access to health care and transportation options, educational and employment opportunities, and aesthetic elements (e.g., green spaces and vibrant public spaces) result in differences in opportunities and exposure to health-promoting resources such as child care, high performing schools, affordable housing, access to healthy food and safe spaces for physical activity. The availability and quality of these neighborhood resources and services have a major impact on the ability of children and families to make choices that support healthy growth and development. When children and families have access to these resources and services, children have more opportunities to thrive. On the contrary, children growing up in communities that lack these often suffer poorer health outcomes than their peers. These differences in health are known as health disparities.
The way we design and build our neighborhoods can affect our physical and mental health. In this time of rising obesity rates, traffic congestion, long work hours, high stress levels, and fewer opportunities to be physical active, finding creative ways to address these issues is important. We must also consider the changing weather patterns and the possible impact on our way of life. All these factors stress the importance of designing and building healthy and vital communities that promote health.
Many schools are surrounded by fast food restaurants, which provide students with easy access to unhealthy foods and undermine schools' efforts to offer nutritious meals. Prohibiting fast food restaurants from locating near schools is one strategy to help reduce childhood obesity and support schools striving to improve students' health. NPLAN has developed a model ordinance that creates a "healthy food zone" by restricting fast food restaurants near schools or other areas children are likely to frequent.