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In the biggest change in local transportation policy in a generation, maybe two, "congestion pricing" will be instituted in Manhattan's Central Business District in early 2021. It is the first action in decades that could actually lower traffic congestion, and that could provide a stable funding for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. It also transfers considerable power from the Mayor to the Governor. Vehicles entering Manhattan on or below 60th Street will need to pay a charge, probably through the E-ZPass system or, if the do not have such passes but their license plates are photographed, higher rates via "pay-by-mail." The program has three major goals- reducing traffic volumes on Manhattan's streets by making it more expensive to drive; reducing air pollution; and providing an assured source of capital funding for the transit system. The new program was enacted as part of the FY2020 State budget, Chapter 59 of the Laws of 2019. Most of it is codified in a new Article 44-C of the Vehicle and Traffic Law. This column discusses what the law provides, what is yet to be decided, and who will decide.
Live-near-your-work policies can benefit all stakeholders: shorter commute times and lowered housing costs save time and money for employees; improved employee morale, productivity, and retention reduce turnover and training costs for employers; communities can see better air quality, less urban sprawl and decreased traffic congestion.
This report evaluates the potential impact of automation in the trucking industry. It looks at the potential impact of driverless trucks in particular. It evaluates both employment impacts and potential policy solutions.
Municipal bonds are one financing tool well suited to close the U.S. infrastructure investment gap. The U.S. municipal bond market has funded large-scale, long-term capital-intensive projects in states and cities, as well as their operational expenses, since the beginning of the 1900s. The market is large, with investors today holding a total of $3.7 trillion of U.S. municipal debt. Different types of investors are attracted to the muni bond market, but individuals are the dominant investors, either directly as individual retail investors or through mutual funds, accounting for more than 70 percent of the market. This is largely because the vast majority of muni bonds are issued as tax-exempt instruments: of the $3.7 trillion in outstanding muni bonds, only approximately $600 billion are taxable. Because individuals tend to have significant tax liability, tax-exempt muni bonds are attractive investment opportunities. Some federal programs also offer additional subsidies to attract tax exempt investors, such as pension funds, to the U.S. muni bond market.
What would have to happen for the city of Memphis to reduce poverty by 10% within 10 years – lowering it from 27% to 17% – and fundamentally shift economic opportunity and well-being for low-income residents? Today, there are 180,741 Memphis residents living below the poverty line ($23,550 for a family of four). Achieving a 10 percentage point reduction means moving 64,000 individuals out of poverty. It will require a combination of more and better jobs; better access to areas of job growth; lower household expenses for energy, transportation and water; and opportunities for economic advancement that are built on public safety, education, health, supportive services, and affordable housing. This report outlines key improvements that must be made in jobs, resource efficiency, transportation, and social services that Memphis must make to achieve this goal.
A child's health is a key predictor for his or her future success and well-being. Unfortunately, far too many children face barriers that prevent them from reaching their full potential because of where they live, learn and play. The inequitable distribution of social, economic and environmental resources across communities - often called the social determinants of health - create challenges for healthy living. Socioeconomic conditions (e.g., concentrated poverty), access to health care and transportation options, educational and employment opportunities, and aesthetic elements (e.g., green spaces and vibrant public spaces) result in differences in opportunities and exposure to health-promoting resources such as child care, high performing schools, affordable housing, access to healthy food and safe spaces for physical activity. The availability and quality of these neighborhood resources and services have a major impact on the ability of children and families to make choices that support healthy growth and development. When children and families have access to these resources and services, children have more opportunities to thrive. On the contrary, children growing up in communities that lack these often suffer poorer health outcomes than their peers. These differences in health are known as health disparities.
Large public investments in transportation infrastructure-such as a new freeway interchange or transit station-can increase the value of adjacent private land, sometimes substantially. Capturing the value of this benefit through various tools is gaining interest as a finance mechanism for infrastructure investments. But many questions remain: Does "value capture" promote or hinder economic development? How does it affect different segments of society? Is the revenue substantial, stable, or predictable? How feasible is adoption and implementation? To answer these and other questions, the Minnesota Legislature appropriated funding to the University of Minnesota's Center for Transportation Studies in 2008 to study the public policy implications of value capture. No previous research has systematically compiled and analyzed the full gamut of policy tools that may be used for value capture. This document summarizes the findings from that study.
In early 2015, New Cities Foundation launched the Financing Urban Infrastructure Initiative to address critical infrastructure financing issues and challenges facing cities today. This handbook is the culmination of that initiative.
Signs of renaissance abound in the City of Grand Rapids. Cranes and construction dominate the urban heart of Downtown. The city is on track to recover all of its pre-recession population and now claims one of the nation's strongest real estate markets. And Forbes recently declared the regional economy one of the fastest-growing in the U.S. Yet this rapid expansion is contrasted by a costly degree of deepening racial inequity. Poverty, for example, grew faster across greater Grand Rapids in recent years than it did in Detroit. The unemployment rate exceeds 25 and 50 percent for Hispanic and Black citizens, respectively, in our urban neighborhoods. Even in Downtown Grand Rapids, generally perceived as affluent, 66 percent of residents earn less than the area median income. Clearly, conventional economic recovery and growth is not sufficient to solve the persistent racial and ethnic inequity in our community. We need a fundamentally new approach to systemically achieve growth with prosperity that is widely shared by all residents in the "new" Grand Rapids. Toward this necessary end, GR Forward recommends a series of sound strategies to simultaneously promote growth, equity of opportunity, and a more welcoming Downtown. Please find a summary of these proposed actions, targets, and success measures on page 34 of the full GR Forward plan. These recommendations reflect what we heard from thousands of citizens and stakeholders who participated in GR Forward's extensive engagement process.
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority’s (LACMTA) Construction Careers Policy (CCP) encourages construction employment and training opportunities in ways calculated to mitigate the harms caused by geographically concentrated poverty and unemployment in economically disadvantaged areas and among disadvantaged workers throughout the United States. This policy identifies the minimum efforts contractors performing on covered LACMTA construction projects must make to comply with this policy.