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This model act allows a city or county to conduct a local election using ranked choice voting in which voters rank the candidates for office in order of preference. Ranked choice voting elections may be used for single-winner elections, such as Mayor, or for elections that elect multiple candidates to office, such as city council. This model act authorizes ranked choice voting methods to be adopted by ballot measure, initiative ordinance, or charter amendment.
The cost of high- quality children care is high. Even CCDBG provides support of child care, few people can access to it. The government should expand their investment in child care and increase professional development opportunities for child care and early learning workforce.
Small fees will be placed on disposable bags. Disposable bags require energy and natural resources to be produced and cause pollution. The policy can help reduce the usage of disposable bags to reduce pollution. Simultaneously, the tax obtained raises the fund for environmental effort.
Key elements of feed-in rates and CLEAN contracts include cost-based, standardized contracts that are long term, which allows developers to secure project financing. Incentives for local ownership, hiring of local workers, and use of locally made products can help ensure that these approaches help grow the local economy.
Childcare produces tremendous benefits for the child, the family, and society, but is currently undervalued by policy makers. Women employed in the childcare industry are living just above the poverty line. The government can increase childcare funding, improving pay of people working for childcare, and improve childcare provider's compensation.
This report showcases a variety of different pathways cities are taking to reach the Paris Agreement climate goals. These pathways and related actions focus on reducing resource consumption, shifting to cleaner sources of energy, and transforming our communities for deep long-lasting climate action.
The United States has seen a remarkable set of developments at the international level in controlling greenhouse gas emissions- the entry into force of the Paris Climate Agreement, and major new agreements on controlling hydrofluorocarbon emissions and pollution from airplanes. The stunning election of Donald Trump casts the future of some but not all of these efforts into doubt, however. The following column details out these agreements and their future impacts within the United States and abroad.
On June 24, 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law the Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save Act of 2009 which gave up to $4,500 to owners of vehicles with poor fuel economy who trade them in for more efficient new vehicles. This "cash-for-clunkers" program was touted as meeting three objectives: increasing vehicle sales, at a time when the U.S. auto industry is struggling; reducing fuel use; and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This column examines the workings of the program as well as describes what kinds of vehicles can be turned in and purchased under it. The column then assesses how well the program meets its stated objectives. In conclusion, the authors found that the program will chiefly benefit the vehicle manufacturers as there is such a narrow differential in mileage between traded-in and new vehicles eligible for credit that the resulting reductions in fuel usage and GHG emissions will be modest. In addition to this, they found that the energy cost of building new vehicles must be factored into the equation as the carbon dioxide payback time for manufacturing vehicles can take several years. Lastly, the column points out that the program greatly affects income distribution as it encourages old cars to be crushed and shredded, thus reducing the supply of old cars and presumably raising the price of those that remain, in turn hurting lower income people.
Currently 83 percent of the energy consumed in the United States is from fossil fuels. This in turn creates 81 percent of the United States' emissions of greenhouse gases, is the principle source of air pollution, and leads to major environmental problems where the fuel is extracted from the ground. Increasing the share of non-fossil energy involves a switch from the fuels that took tens of millions of years to form under the ground, to sources that are constantly renewed. This column is devoted to the legal aspects involved in increasing the share of the energy that we use that comes from renewable sources. The author points to six legal techniques that have been developed to increase the use of renewable energy: 1) Portfolio Standards 2)Mandatory Utility Purchases 3)Renewable Fuel Standards 4)Carbon Price 5) Tax Incentives and 6)Research and Development. In addition to this, the author points to six impediments to the growth of renewables: 1)Intermittency 2)Fossil Subsidies 3)Capital Availability 4)Turnover Rate of Capital Plant 5)Scale and Timing and 6)Siting and Environmental Impacts.
In recent years the frequency and severity of heavy precipitation and floods in parts of the United States have been increasing to a statistically significant degree, and this trend is expected to worsen. This article summarizes some of the liability issues that result from floods, and efforts to control them. Under governmental liability, the author highlights multiple participating factors including sovereign immunity, structural measures, nonstructural measures, flood-related regulations, and land use regulations. Under private liability, the column points to issues regarding neighboring property owners, dams and other obstructions, overflow, insurance, utilities, and design professionals. Lastly, the author draws upon the Hurricane Katrina Case where the U.S. Court of Appeals heard oral arguments in an important case on flood liability.