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Equitable mobility pilot projects should center the voices usually left out of decision-making through a community-driven process. Equitable mobility pilot projects must also address entrenched injustices by providing the following benefits to low-income communities of color in a way that is meaningful, direct, and assured: (1) Increased access to affordable, efficient, safe, reliable mobility options; (2) Reduced air pollution; (3) Enhanced economic opportunities. Historically, transportation investments and plans have not met the mobility needs of low-income people of color because decisions have been made behind closed doors without community input. This has resulted in these communities suffering from disproportionate levels of transportation-related pollution and longer and less reliable commutes. A lack of good mobility options limits low-income people's ability to raise themselves out of poverty. Today, low-income people of color often face financial, technological, physical, or cultural, barriers to accessing shared mobility services (i.e. bikeshare, scooter share, Uber, carshare, etc.). Some of these mobility services have also be shown to compete with public transit ridership and utilize unfair labor practices, both of which harm people of color.
As opposed to conventional data and metrics, this report uses newer data sources and more advanced analytic tools to study Sacramento’s transportation system. In particular, this report utilizes accessibility metrics to identify locations with poor connections to existing transit, explain people’s travel behavior in those places, and evaluate possible improvements at key locations.
Transit is a powerful force for facilitating employment density and therefore, reaping the benefits of firms and people clustering together in cities. In order to counter the rising trend towards job sprawl (which holds important equity implications), policy makers at the local and regional levels are posing transit as a central mechanism for concentrating future employment growth in higher density, more accessible districts. This report explores how industries vary in their proclivity to locate in higher density, transit-served locations and assesses which industries have experienced recent growth near transit in absolute numbers. The outcome of this analysis is a better understanding of the types of industries that may have a greater propensity to be transit-oriented.
Freight Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies help to increase overall transportation system efficiency by shifting the routes, travel times, operational characteristics, or transportation modes used to move goods. These strategies present more sustainable, cost-effective alternatives to increasing capacity on congested highways and roads that offer health, safety, environmental, and livability benefits as well. This report looks at the costs of transporting freight by highway and railroad, the costs allocated to shippers, taxpayers, and society, what and where freight TDM activities are being implemented, and how local governments can effectively implement freight TDM strategies.
This report compares estimates of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in Hawaii under current conditions versus VMT when policies are implemented to manage travel demand. These policies include transportation demand management (employer-based programs that encourage employees to carpool, use transit, walk, or bike), parking reform, road or mileage pricing (i.e. increased taxes on gasoline, congestion charges in urban areas), improved access to walking and biking facilities, zoning policies that encourage denser, mixed-use development in suburban areas, and more. Under current conditions, VMT is expected to rise 16.6% above current levels by 2045; upon policy implementation, VMT could be reduced by 7.3 percent below current levels by 2045.
This report guides planning agencies and transportation decision makers in measuring accessibility and incorporating those metrics into decision making by outlining general concepts, data needs and availability, analysis tools, and other considerations in measuring accessibility. It describes different ways accessibility can be measured and demonstrates how the metrics can be used through project evaluation examples. It also describes the potential use of accessibility metrics in predicting outcomes such as travel demand and transit ridership.
As part of the strategic planning process engaged in during 2008-2009, the Collaboration adopted benchmarks for the Oak Park Early Childhood System. The benchmarks were chosen because they are relevant, measurable and provide data that can be used and acted upon to further system development and better prepare children for success in school and in life. The benchmarks allow for targets and dates to be specified. The Collaboration will define these measures in increasing increments, based on funding levels.
Major economic development projects and infrastructure investment can present both tremendous opportunities and significant threats for communities and residents. Using a community benefits approach, as a local government official you have powerful tools available to ensure that these projects provide the greatest social, economic and environmental benefits while also not harming surrounding neighborhoods. In short, community benefits are assets available through economic development that meet real community needs. Examples include community access to living wage jobs, affordable housing, health and community services and open space.
Researchers and policymakers alike want to better understand the long-run effects of investments in children's well-being. Yet, only a few studies have examined how participants in early childhood interventions fare as adults. These studies suggest that early investments may have sizable payoffs for children's later success. Such studies are valuable, but also rare and costly. In the absence of long-run data on children's outcomes, how can we determine the long-run monetary value of improvements in young children's well-being? In this report we describe a way to estimate the connections between improvements in aspects of children's early health, achievement, and behavior, as well as early parenting, to improved labor market outcomes when they become adults. Our results suggest that investments in early childhood that improve these aspects of development will likely have important payoffs. However, the magnitude of these payoffs is strongly dependent on the extent to which early program effects are maintained over time.
The District of Columbia has provided funding for prekindergarten programs since the 1960s. The D.C. Public Pre-Kindergarten program as it now exists serves students in schools run through D.C. Public Schools (DCPS), community-based organizations (CBOs), and charter schools authorized by the D.C. Public Charter School Board (PCSB). The Pre-Kindergarten Enhancement and Expansion Amendment Act, passed in 2008, aims to provide high-quality, universally available prekindergarten education services through a mixed delivery system across all education sectors. The distribution of program funds by the D.C. Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) is based on a per-pupil funding formula with additional funds for serving children who receive special education services or are English Language Learners. Charter schools receive a separate facilities allowance per child. DCPS piloted blended classrooms that enroll pre-K students funded through various sources in the pre-K program during the 2010-2011 school year. Additional freedom was also granted to non-public providers to manage their own contracts for technical assistance and comprehensive health service consultations. The PCSB provides oversight to participating pre-K programs.