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State and local governments primarily issue bonds to pay for long term capital projects and longstanding infrastructure. This report provides an overview of tax-exempt bonds and other financing used by state and local governments and public entities. In particular, this report discusses the fundamentals of tax-exempt bonds, the role tax-exempt bonds play in infrastructure financings and as an investment product, and congressional actions over the past fifty years related to the capital market.
Developing and tracking accessibility metrics has many practical advantages, such as measuring how readily commuters can meet their needs and providing a common measure for assessing various transportation modes and modal investments. This guide addresses the need for accessibility measures in transportation and land practice, pointing to problems with existing metrics and introducing place-based metrics—cumulative-opportunity metrics and decay-weighted metrics. Additionally, this guide describes the types of transportation and land use data (i.e. level of stress traffic, U.S. Census data, walking and biking speeds) that are useful in calculating accessibility, with suggestions on how to obtain them and use them to calculate and report accessibility.
President Joe Biden’s COVID-19 relief package, the American Rescue Plan, includes a significant expansion of the Child Tax Credit (CTC). The proposal provides a $125 billion boost in funding for the program, which would double the size of the existing federal credit for households with children. This infographic explains the benefits of this expansion and their potential impact on different racial and income groups.
The Coronavirus Relief Fund (CRF) – part of the CARES Act – provided direct assistance to state, local, and tribal governments, and designated $150 billion for counties with populations of more than 500,000. Through an assessment of the CRF, this report evaluates the effectiveness of federal funding in meeting the needs of counties and the controls warranted for federal funds. Additionally, this report also identifies and documents innovative strategies employed by counties using CRF funds, highlighting approaches to address social equity. In doing so, this report provides recommendations on effective delivery and implementation of future federal aid packages for state and local governments.